Sunday, December 11, 2011

Housing / Shed Plan for a Pig farm

Housing (model can vary)

Good, efficient housing makes management easier and helps the farmer to successfully rear 85 % or more of all the live born piglets to market weight in the shortest possible time. Pigs at different stages of growth need different environments (temperatures). If they are to produce and grow to their maximum potential piglets need special protection against very low temperatures. Growing and reproducing pigs must be protected against high temperatures. The houses must therefore be built in such a way that the pigs are protected against extreme temperatures and other bad weather conditions such as cold winds and continuous rain.

The boar pen

  • Boars are kept separately in their own pen. One boar is 
    kept for every 15 to 20 sows. On a pig farm with only 20 sows it is advisable to keep at least two boars, namely a young not too heavy boar for young sows and gilts, and an older boar for older, heavier sows. You will therefore need two pens.
  • Sows are brought to the boar to be served in the boar pen. This pen should be 9 to 10 m2, with the short side at least 2 m wide so that the boar can easily turn around in it.
  • The floor should be made of cement and must not be slippery. It should slope towards the sides and to the front so that urine and waste water can drain into a shallow manure channel at the front of the pen.
  • The walls must be of solid concrete or cement plastered brick. Gates can be made of round iron pipes, with a 20 mm diameter, spaced vertically not further apart than 75 mm. The height of the gate and also the walls should be 1 400 mm.
  • An under-roof sleep area, about a third of the size of the pen, must be covered in bedding. Straw, grass or sawdust can be used for this purpose.
  • A feed trough is placed in the sleeping area in such a way that it does not get filled with bedding. The trough for each boar should be 450 to 600 mm long, 150 to 200 mm high and 500 mm wide.
  • Cool, clean water must be available at all times on the side where the gate is. The pig will also dung in this area. A small water trough with a ball valve to control the level of the water or preferably a pig-drinking nipple can be used. The nipple must be placed at a 90° angle with the vertical and between 550 and 650 mm from the floor.
  • Make sure that the boar pen is well ventilated and draught free. It is important that the temperature does not rise higher than 22 °C for long periods. If the temperature rises above 32 °C the boar may become infertile for up to six weeks. On very hot days boars can be kept cool by sprinkling them with water.

  • Gilts and dry sows

    • Gilts should be brought to the boar for the first time when they are 7,5 to eight months old.
    • Dry sows come onto heat three to seven days after weaning when they have to be served by a boar again. Therefore, keep gilts and dry sows to be served in pens next to or near the boar so that they can be checked for heat daily until they are served.
    • Do not keep more than five gilts or sows in one pen.
    • Gilts and sows should not be kept in the same pen.
    • An area of about 5 mper pig is required. Therefore, to house five pigs a pen with an area of approximately 25 m2 is required.
    • The construction and specifications (apart from the size) of the sow/gilt pen are the same as that of the boar pen.
    • Individual feeding is, however, important to ensure that each pig receives the correct quantity of feed every time. Enough trough space with partitions that allow the pigs to eat individually is therefore necessary.
    • Nineteen days after the pigs have been served by a boar they are again brought into contact with a boar for five to seven consecutive days to make sure that they are pregnant. If the boar does not serve them again, it can be concluded that they are pregnant and they can then be placed in the pregnant sow house.

  • Pregnant sows

    Pregnancy lasts 114 to 116 days. Sows are put in the pregnant sow pen about 24 days after service and are only moved to the farrowing pen seven days before they give birth. They stay in these pens for about 85 days. The pens can be similar to dry sow pens. Provided the sows are about the same size, up to five pregnant sows can be kept in one pen. To make sure that each pig receives the correct quantity of feed, provision should again be made for individual feeding. The construction of this pen is also similar to that described for boar pens. At least two and preferably three pens (to house a maximum of five pregnant sows each) are needed.

    Farrowing pens

    The farrowing pen is the most important pen on the farm. It has to be designed in such a way that the right temperature is provided for the sow and her piglets during the first seven to 10 days after birth, while trampling and overlying is prevented as far as possible.
    • It is advisable to build a farrowing house (large room) containing five or six farrowing pens. A five-pen house should be 13,25 m long, and a six-pen house 15,5 m. The width in both cases should be 4 m. Each pen will be 2 x 2,25 m with a 1 m wide feed passage on the northern side of the pens and a 1 m wide dung passage on the southern side. The entrance must be on the short side of the building with a 1 m space between the outside wall and the first pen. The space is linked to the feed and dung passages. The figure on the following page illustrates the layout of a typical farrowing crate.
    A sow in a farrowing crate
    • Each pen must have a farrowing crate (see figure on p 42) where the sow is kept from one week before the piglets are born until they are weaned when they are 28 or 35 days old. The crate is placed in the pen allowing a space of about 1 m on the one side and 0,5 m on the other side. The feed trough (500 mm long and 200 mm high) for feed and water is on the feed passage side of the pen. If water is laid on in the farrowing house a water nipple can be placed above the feeding trough. The entrance gate is on the side of the dung passage.
    • A creep area must be provided for the piglets. A steel or wooden box, 600 x 600 mm which is large enough for the litter to creep into, can be placed next to the feed trough and the feed passage wall. The creep is important because it helps to reduce deaths as a result of crushing. It also provides a draught-free area where the piglets heat one another. In this way the creep area provides the required temperature of 27 to 32 °C for piglets during the first 10 days of life.
    • The farrowing house must have windows on both sides (on the long wall sides) to ventilate and cool the house. The temperature where the sow is kept (in the farrowing crate) should preferably not be higher than about 21 °C.
    Side view
    Top view
    Section AA (seen from above)
    Plan for a typical farrowing crate 
    Note: Use 16 mm and 20 mm diameter steel pipes and rods for farrowing crate construction.




    Weaner and finishing house (growing pigs)

    Piglets are weaned when they are only 28 days old. They must therefore be looked after with care for at least another four to six weeks until they are 10 weeks old. They must be kept in pens at a temperature of 17 to 25 °C and draughts and wet conditions should be prevented.
    It is advisable to keep the growing and finishing pigs in pens similar to those used for weaners.
    A weaner/finisher house with 20 pens must therefore be built. Each pen 
    must be large enough to house a litter of 10 to 12 pigs, kept in the pen from the age of four weeks until they are sold at a live weight of 90 to 110 kg. Two rows of 10 pens are built in the house. The building will be 40 m long and 9 m wide. The individual pens, should be 12 m2 or 4 x 3 m with 1 m high concrete walls, and two 1 m wide dung passages along the north and south walls of the building with a feeding passage, 1 m wide in the middle between the two rows of pens. The entrance to the building is again to the short side of the building with a 1 m space between the outside wall and the first pen linked to the feed and dung passages. The entrance gates to the pens are on the side of the feed passage. Water troughs or drinking nipples are fixed to the pen walls facing towards the dung passages.
    The pigs will lie down and sleep along the inside wall of the pen where the feed trough is placed. Growing pigs must have access to feed at all times. It is therefore ideal to use self-feeders. An effective self-feeder can be set in such a way that feed wastage is restricted to a minimum (feed is expensive and must not be wasted by the pigs). A long concrete trough built next to the feed passage wall, can also be used, but usually causes the pigs to waste feed and is therefore not recommended.
    If you want to keep piglets healthy and alive, keep them warm, and if you want the sows to have enough milk for the piglets, keep them cool

    Handling of manure

    The solid manure which contains some bedding must be stacked outside in windrows. It is important to stack the manure in such a way that water will be allowed to drain from the manure as quickly as possible. Stacked manure has an unpleasant smell and becomes a breeding place for flies if left in a windrow for a long period. It is therefore, essential to air the manure in the windrow by turning it regularly. The oxygen in the air keeps the anaerobic bacteria in the manure alive and in this way helps to turn the manure into valuable compost. On a 20-sow pig farm up to 300 tons of composted manure can be produced every year. The compost can be used as fertiliser on cultivated lands or can be sold as compost.
    An income equal to the sale of 20 baconers is possible if good-quality compost is produced

    Make compost by adding soil, grass cuttings, leaves, etc. It can be used as fertiliser on cultivated lands or can be sold for an extra income

    Diagrammes of required buildings

    Build three pig houses:
    • A building for boars, gilts, dry and pregnant sows
    • A farrowing house
    • A building to keep growing pigs in from the time they are weaned until they are sold to be slaughtered.
    The diagrams show the number and size of each pen required on a farm where a maximum of 20 breeding sows are kept.

    Outdoor housing of pigs

    • Pigs can also be kept outside in camps where shade structures provide the necessary protection against wind, rain and excessive heat or cold.
    • The capital required to start outdoor pig farming is therefore 20 to 30 % less than the amount of money required for an indoor unit.
    • There are both advantages and disadvantages which must be taken into consideration before deciding to build an outdoor piggery instead of an indoor unit.
    Advantages
    • Strong and healthy weaner pigs can be produced on a properly run outdoor pig unit.
    • Labour costs should be less.
    • There will be less problems with the disposal of manure.
    • Capital costs will be appreciably less.
    • Disadvantages
    • Lower productivity because pigs grow slower and most probably less pigs will be produced. Profit margins could therefore be smaller.
    • Handling of individual pigs will be more difficult.
    • Sows that are not pregnant or that are infertile will be difficult to identify.
    • Pigs can only be kept out of doors on light soils that are well drained.
    • Strong fencing is required to ensure that pigs are kept inside.
    • Mud during the rainy season can be a problem, hindering access to the camp.
    • Feed is wasted as a result of birds and predators eating the pig feed.
    • Loss of piglets killed by predators.


    Sketch with dimensions of a building for boars, gilts, dry sows and pregnant sows 

    Sketch with dimensions of a building for growing pigs from
    weaning to slaughter (minimum 16 and maximum 20 needed
    for a farm with 20 breeding sows)

        
    Sketch with dimensions of a building
    for sows with piglets (farrowing house)
    Outside wall and roof dimensions of the buildings (length of the building should be east/west)



    Requirements for outdoor pig farming

    A suitable climate, the correct type of ground surface and well-trained, motivated labourers are essential.

    Temperature

    • Temperatures must be within the thermic neutral zone for pigs—preferably not below 15 °C and not higher than 30 °C.
    • If temperatures are lower or higher additional heating or cooling is necessary.
    • Enclosed straw-covered areas can supply additional heat.
    • Cooling can be supplied by shade structures or mud puddles.

    Rainfall

    Do not farm out of doors in high-rainfall areas—more than 500 to 800 mm per year.

    Soil type

    The soil must be light and well drained. Camps, pens and paths that are always wet can ruin the unit.

    Level of the ground

    Fairly level ground that does not slope too much is needed. Too much of a slope will hamper access to the unit. Earth and straw will also wash away if the slope is too big.

    Services

    • Provide good water supply to all the camps and pens.
    • The camps must be accessible to vehicles for loading and offloading of pigs.

    Example of a camp system for 25 producing sows

    (ILI Extensive Pig Housing, ARC Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Silverton)
    The sows are divided into groups of five and remain together in their groups in the camps.
    The table shows the number of camps, pigs and camp sizes for a 25-sow unit.
    Number of camps, pigs and camp sizes for a 25-sow unit




    Type of camp 
    Number of camps
    Number of pigs per camp 
    Proposed camp size (m2)
    Boar
     1 
    5 sows x 2 boars 
    3 000
    Dry sow
     5 
    5 sows x 1 boar 
    3 000
    Farrowing
     1
     5 sows x litter 
    3 000
    Weaning 
    5 sows x litter 
    2 000
    Growing
     3 
    50 
    2 500
    Finishing
     3 
    50 
    3 000




    Proposed layout for an extensive camp system with 25 producing sows 

    Chamber type farrowing structure in camp


    Triangular farrowing structure in camp 


    Steel frame gate for use in camps

    Thursday, December 08, 2011

    Rough Cost Estimate ( First 7 months )


    PROJECT - II




    PIGGERY FARM 


    PRICE PER white PIGLETS OF 2MONTH OLD RS 2000
    WEIGHT OF PIGLETS AT 2 MONTHS 10 - 15 KGS
    YIELDING PERIOD 4 MONTHS
    WEIGHT AT THE END OF 6TH MONTH 80KGS
    PRICE PER KG RS 45 TO 70


    PERMANENT INVESTMENT 


    200 PIGLETS X RS 2000 RS 4,00,000
    SHED FOR PIGLETS RS 1,50,000
    SUB TOTAL RS 5,50,000


    PERMANENT EXPENSES 


    INTEREST FOR PERMANENT INVESTMENT PER ANNUM@12% RS 54,000
    DEPRECIATION IN BUILDING @ 10% RS 15,000
    INSURANCE @ 6% RS 18,000
    SUB TOTAL RS 87,000


    DAY TO DAY EXPENSES 


    FEEDING - CONCENTRATED FOOD & OTHERS RS 1,40,000
    MEDICINE RS 20,000
    OTHER EXPENSES (WATER+ELECTRICITY + LABOUR ) RS 2,00,000
    SUB TOTAL RS 3,60,000


    INCOME 


    SALE OF PIGS - 200NOS X 80KGS X RS 70 PER KG RS 11,20,000
    SALE OF WASTAGE RS 50,000
    SUB TOTAL RS 11,70,000


    PROFIT 


    TOTAL INCOME - ( PERMANENT + DAY TO DAY EXPENSES)
    ( RS 11,70,000 – 4,47,000 ) 


    7,23,000 (EXCLUDING PERMANENT INVSTMENT)


    Rough Cost Estimate ( First 14 months )


    PROJECT I




    PIGGERY FARM --- 


    PRICE PER PIGS - 20 NOS FEMALE X RS 9000 EACH RS 1,80,000
    PRICE PER PIGS - 2 NOS MALE X RS 9000 EACH RS 18,000
    SHED FOR PIGS RS 1,98,000


    PERMANENT INVESTMENT 


    WHITE PIGS - 22 NOS X RS 9000 EACH RS 1,98,000
    SHED FOR PIGS RS 1,50,000
    SUB TOTAL RS 3,48,000


    PERMANENT EXPENSES 


    INTEREST FOR PERMANENT INVESTMENT PER ANNUM@12% RS 37,800
    DEPRECIATION IN BUILDING @ 10% RS 15,000
    INSURANCE @ 6% RS 9,900
    SUB TOTAL RS 62,700


    DAY TO DAY EXPENSES 


    FEEDING - 22NOS + 160 NOS + 160 NOS RS 3,20,300
    MEDICINE RS 25,000
    OTHER EXPENSES (WATER+ELECTRICITY + LABOUR ) RS 3,00,000
    SUB TOTAL RS 6,45,300


    INCOME 


    1ST LOT PIGS - 8MONTHS OLD 160NOS X 95KG X RS 70/- RS 10,64,000
    2nd LOT PIGLETS - 2MONTHS OLD 160 NOS X RS 2000/- EACH RS 3,20,000
    SALE OF WASTAGE RS 35,000
    SUB TOTAL RS 14,19,000


    PROFIT 


    TOTAL INCOME - ( PERMANENT + DAY TO DAY EXPENSES)
    ( RS 14,19,000 - {RS 62,700 + RS 6,45,300} ) 


    NET PROFIT RS 7,11,000 (EXCLUDING PERMANENT INVSTMNT)

    Wednesday, December 07, 2011

    Commercial Piggery At a Glance

    1. WHY DO PIG FARMING? 
     The challenges faced by our country in securing the food as well as nutritional security to fast growing population need an integrated approach for livestock farming. Among the various livestock species, piggery is most potential source of meat production and more efficient feed converters after the broiler. Apart from providing meat, it is also a source of bristles and manure. Pig farming will provide employment opportunities to seasonally employed rural farmers and supplementary income to improve their living standards. The advantages of the pig farming are : 
    1. The pig has got highest feed conversion efficiency i.e. they produce more live weight gain from a given weight of feed than any other class of meat producing animals except broilers. 
    2. The pig can utilise wide variety of feed stuffs viz. grains, forages, damaged feeds and garbage and convert them into valuable nutritious meat. However, feeding of damaged grains, garbage and other unbalanced rations may result in lower feed efficiency. 
    3. They are prolific with shorter generation interval. A sow can be bred as early as 8-9 months of age and can farrow twice in a year. They produce 6-12 piglets in each farrowing. 
    4. Pig farming requires small investment on buildings and equipments 
    5. Pigs are known for their meat yield, which in terms of dressing percentage ranges from 65 - 80 in comparison to other livestock species whose dressing yields may not exceed 65%. 
    6. Pork is most nutritious with high fat and low water content and has got better energy value than that of other meats. It is rich in vitamins like thiamin, Niacin and riboflavin. 
    7. Pigs manure is widely used as fertilizer for agriculture farms and fish ponds. 
    8. Pigs store fat rapidly for which there is an increasing demand from poultry feed, soap, paints and other chemical industries. 
    9. Pig farming provides quick returns since the marketable weight of fatteners can be achieved with in a period of 6-8 months. 
    10. There is good demand from domestic as well as export market for pig products such as pork, bacon, ham, sausages, lard etc. 


    2. SCOPE FOR PIG FARMING AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO NATIONAL ECONOMY 
     2.1 The pig population of the country is 12.79 million as per the 1992 livestock census and 13.291 million as per 1997 provisional result of census from states and constitutes around 1.30% of the total world's population. The state wise pig population are given in Annexure I . The pork production stands at 4.20 lakh tonnes (1995). During 2001-02 the production of pork and pork products were estimated to be 612550 mt with 3.03% growth rate in last decade. If comprised over 38% of the total world meat product Indian share in piggary meat production moderately increased from 0.53%in 1981 to 0.63 in 2002. The contribution of pork products in terms of value works out to 0.80% of total livestock products and 4.32% of the meat and meat products. The contribution of pigs to Indian exports is very poor. About 934 tonnes of pork and pork products were exported during 1995-96. The value of pork and pork products exported is Rs. 262 lakhs against the total value of Rs. 61604 lakhs on account of meat and meat products export. 
    2.2 The pig farming constitutes the livelihood of rural poor belonging to the lowest socio-economic strata and they have no means to undertake scientific pig farming with improved foundation stock, proper housing, feeding and management. Therefore, suitable schemes to popularise the scientific pig breeding cum rearing of meat producing animals with adequate financial provisions are necessary to modernise the Indian pig industry and to improve the productivity of small sized rural pig farms. 
    2.3 In view of the importance of pig farming in terms of it's contribution to rural poor and possible potentials for pig rearing in our country, Government of India has initiated measures to promote the pig farming on scientific lines under it's five year plans. The first step towards this direction is establishment of eight bacon factories and organisation of pig production in rural areas attached to bacon factories. In order to make available good foundation stock, regional pig breeding stations were established for each bacon factory. Further expansion of pig breeding programmes paved the way for establishment of 115 pig breeding farms (1992-93) through out the country. The location of bacon factories and pig breeding farms are given in Annexures II and III respectively. 


    3 FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AVAILABLE FROM BANKS / NABARD FOR PIG FARMING 
     3.1 NABARD is an apex institution for all matters relating to policy, planning, and operations in the field of agriculture credit. It serves as refinance agency for the ground level institutions / banks providing investment and production credit for various activities under agriculture and allied sectors for ensuring integrated rural development. It co-ordinates the development activities through a well organised Technical Services Department at the head office and Technical cells at each of the regional offices. 
    3.2 For undertaking the pig farming on scientific lines, loan from banks with refinance facility from NABARD is available. For obtaining bank loan the farmers / entrepreneurs should apply to the nearest branch of a Commercial, Co-operative or Regional Rural Bank in the prescribed application form, which is available in the branches of financing bank. Necessary help or guidance can be obtained from the technical officer attached to or the manager of the bank in preparing the project report, which is a prerequisite for sanction of the loan. 
    3.3 For piggery development schemes with very large outlays, detailed project reports will have to be prepared. The items such as land development, construction of sheds and other civil structures, purchase of the breeding stock, equipment, feed cost upto the point of income generation are normally considered under bank loan. Other items of investment will be considered on need basis after providing the satisfactory information justifying the need for such items. The cost of land is not considered for loan. However, if land is purchased for setting up the piggery farm exclusively, it can be considered as beneficiaries margin money


    .4. SCHEME FORMULATION
    In case of commercial piggery units, the banks are expected to submit a project for availing the refinance. The scheme normally should include information on land, livestock markets, availability of water, feeds, veterinary aid, breeding facilities, marketing aspects, training facilities, experience of the farmer and the type of assistance available from State Government Regional Pig breeding centres. The scheme should also include information on the number of and types of animals to be purchased, their breeds, production performance, cost and other relevant input and output costs with their description. Based on this, the total cost of the project, margin money to be provided by the beneficiary, requirement of bank loan, estimated annual expenditure, income, profit and loss statement, repayment period, etc. can be worked out and included in the project cost. 


    5. REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD PROJECT 
    A format prepared by NABARD for formulation of piggery development schemes is given in Annexure IV. The scheme so formulated should be submitted to the nearest branch of bank. The bank's officers can assist in preparation of the scheme or filling in the prescribed application form. The bank will then examine the scheme for its technical feasibility and economic viability.
     A) Technical Feasibility - This would briefly include : 
    1. Nearness of the selected area to financing bank's branch.
    2. Availability of good quality animals in nearby livestock markets/ breeding farms. 
    3. Source and availability of training facilities. 
    4. Availability of concentrate feeds and kitchen/ hotel/ vegetable market waste and broken grains from Food corporation godowns. 
    5. Availability of medicines, vaccines and veterinary services etc.
    6. Availability of veterinary aid / breeding centres and marketing facilities near the scheme area. 
    7. Reasonability of various production and reproduction parameters. 


    B) Economic Viability - This would briefly include : 
    1. Unit cost - The average cost of piggery breeding stock for some of the States is given in Annexure V. 
    2. Input cost for feeds, veterinary aid, insurance, labour charges, etc. 
    3. Output costs i.e. sale price of fatteners, piglets and culled animals 
    4. Income-expenditure statement and annual gross surplus. 
    5. Cash flow analysis. 


    C. Bankability : Repayment schedule (i.e. repayment of principal loan amount and interest.) Other documents such as loan application forms, security aspects, margin money requirements etc. are also examined. A field visit to the scheme area is undertaken for conducting a techno- economic feasibility study for appraisal of the scheme. The economics of piggery unit is given in Annexure VIa- VIf. 


    6. SANCTION OF BANK LOAN AND ITS DISBURSEMENT
    After ensuring technical feasibility and economic viability, the scheme is sanctioned by the bank. The loan is disbursed in stages against creation of specific assets such as construction of sheds, purchase of equipments and animals. The end use of the fund is verified and constant follow-up is done by the bank. 


    7. LENDING TERMS - GENERAL 
    7.1 Unit cost Each Regional Office (R.O) of NABARD has constituted a State Level Unit Cost Committee under the chairmanship of RO- in-charge and with the members from developmental agencies, commercial banks and cooperative banks to review the unit cost of various investments once in six months. The same is circulated among the banks for their guidance. 
    7.2 Margin Money NABARD has defined farmers into three different categories and where subsidy is not available, the minimum down payment as shown below is collected from the beneficiaries. Sr.No. Category of Farmer Beneficiary's Contribution a) Small farmers 5% b) Medium farmers 10% c) Large farmers 15% 
    7.3 Interest Rate for ultimate borrower Banks are free to decide the role of interest within the overall RBI guidelines. However, for working out the financial viability and bankability of the model project we have assumed the rate of interest as 12% p.a. 
    7.4 Security Security will be as per NABARD/RBI guidelines issued from time to time. 
    7.5 Repayment Period of Loan Repayment period depends upon the gross surplus in the scheme. The loans will be repaid in suitable half yearly/annual instalments usually within a period of about 5-6 years with a grace period of one year. 7.6 Insurance The animals may be insured annually or on long term master policy, where ever it is applicable. The present premium rate for non IRDP schemes is 6% per annum. 


    8. PACKAGE OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES RECOMMENDED FOR COMMERCIAL PIG FARMING 

    Modern and well established scientific principles, practices and skills should be used to obtain maximum economic benefits from pig farming. Some of the major norms and recommended practices are given hereunder:
    I. Housing management:
    1.     Construct shed on dry and properly raised ground.
    2.     Avoid water-logging, marshy and heavy rainfall areas.
    3.     The side walls of the sheds should be 4-5 ft. high and remaining height should be fitted with GI pipes or wooden poles.
    4.     The walls should be plastered to make them damp proof.
    5.     The roof should be atleast 8-10 ft. high.
    6.     The pig stys should be well ventilated.
    7.     The floor should be pucca/hard, even, non-slippery, impervious, well sloped (3 cm per metre) and properly drained to remain dry and clean.
    8.     A feed trough space of 6-12 inches per pig should be provided.
    9.     The corners of feed troughs, drains and walls should be rounded for easy cleaning.
    10.   Provide adequate open space for each animal i.e. double the covered area
    11.   Provide proper shade and cool drinking water in summer.
    12.   Dispose of dung and urine properly.
    13.   Individual pens for boars/lactating sows should be constructed.
    14.   The dry sows/fatteners can be housed in group pens.
    15.   Give adequate space for the animals. (The housing space requirement of pigs in various categories/age groups is given in Annexure VII).

    II. Selection of breeding stock:
    1.     Immediately after release of the loan, purchase the stock from a reliable breeder or from nearest livestock market.
    2.     For commercial pig farming upgraded / cross bred or exotic stock in good health should be selected.
    3.     While selecting a gilt or sow primary aim should be to secure a female that will produce large survivable litter and which can attain marketable weight at an age of six months or less. This can be done with the help of pedigree records/Veterinarian / Bank's technical officer.
    4.     Purchase animals which are ready to be bred.
    5.     Identify the newly purchased animal by giving suitable identification mark (ear notching or tattooing).
    6.     Vaccinate the newly purchased animals against diseases.
    7.     Keep the newly purchased animal under observations for a period of about two weeks and then mix with the other animals.
    8.     Purchase a minimum economical unit as suggested.
    9.     Purchase animals in two batches at the interval of three months.
    10.   Follow judicious culling and replacement of animals in a herd.
    11.   Cull the old animals after 10-12 farrowings.

    III. Feeding management:
    1.     Feed the animals with best feeds.
    2.     Give adequate concentrates in the ration.
    3.     Provide adequate vitamins and minerals.
    4.     Provide adequate clean water.
    5.     Give adequate exercise to the animals.
    6.     The feeding of the piglets is more critical and high quality and more fortified diets are needed for feeding them.
    7.     Feeding of the sows during pregnancy is utmost important for increased litter size.
    8.     The feed requirements of lactating sow varies with the size of the litter, weight, size and age of sow.
    9.     Commercial pig farming should aim at the exploitation of nonconventional feed resources viz., waste from Kitchen/hotel/ cold storage/warehouses, in replacing the balanced rations to minimise the cost of production.
    10.   The feeding regime adopted should take care of all the nutrient requirements of various categories of pigs. The nutrient requirements of breeding stock and growing pigs are given in Annexure VIIIa and VIIIb respectively.

    IV. Protection against Diseases:
    1.     Be on the alert for signs of illness such as reduced feed intake, fever, abnormal discharge or unusual behaviour.
    2.     Consult the nearest veterinary aid centre for help if illness is suspected.
    3.     Protect the animals against common diseases.
    4.     In case of outbreak of contagious diseases, immediately segregate the sick and the healthy animals and take necessary disease control measures.
    5.     Deworm the animals regularly.
    6.     Examine the faeces of adult animals to detect eggs of internal parasites and treat the animals with suitable drugs.
    7.     Wash the animals from time to time to promote sanitation.
    8.     Strictly follow the recommended vaccine schedule as given in Annexure IX.

    V. Breeding care:
    1.     Pigs are highly prolific in nature and two farrowings in a year should be planned by adopting optimal management conditions
    2.     For every 10 sows one boar must be maintained for maximum fertility.
    3.     Breed the animals when it is in peak heat period (i.e. 12 to 24 hours of heat).

    VI. Care during Pregnancy:
    Give special attention to pregnant sows one week before farrowing by providing adequate space, feed, water etc. The sows as well as farrowing pens should be disinfected 3-4 days before the expected date of farrowing and the sows should be placed in the farrowing pen after bedding it properly.

    VII. Care of Piglets:
    1.     Take care of new born piglets by providing guard rails.
    2.     Treat / disinfect the navel cord with tincture of iodine as soon as it is cut with a sharp knife.
    3.     Feed on mothers milk for first 6-8 weeks along with creep feed.
    4.     Protect the piglets against extreme weather conditions, particularly during the first two months.
    5.     Needle teeth should be clipped shortly after birth.
    6.     Vaccinate the piglets as per recommended vaccination schedule.
    7.     Supplementation of Iron to prevent piglet anaemia is necessary.
    8.     The piglets meant for sale as breeder stock must be reared properly.
    9.     Male piglets not selected for breeding should be castrated preferably at the age of 3-4 weeks which will prevent the boar odour in the cooked meat thus it enables production of quality meat.
    10.   Additional feed requirements of lactating sow must be ensured for proper nursing of all the piglets born.

    VIII. Marketing:
    The marketable products of the piggery farming includes the piglets as breeding stock, piglets as fatteners, marketable fatteners and culls. The marketing avenues for the above products are like satellite fattening farms / breeding cum rearing farms and pork consumption centres. In order to promote the consumption of pork it should be supplied to the consumers in an attractive form. Therefore availability of either slaughtering facilities or bacon factories are to be ensured to convert the fatteners into wholesome pork and their products. The bacon factories that are being operated in our country are furnished in the annexure II . The sale of piglets at 2-3 months of age will yield quick returns and enables the pig farmer to concentrate their efforts on maximizing the productivity of breeder stock. The other marketing strategy can be rearing of piglets upto marketing age for their sale as fatteners. Based on the market demand appropriate marketing strategy must be adopted in consultation with the local animal husbandry department officials